Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Anthocyanidins

Anthocyanidins are the sugar-free counterparts of anthocyanins based on the benzopyrylium (chromenylium) ion. In particular anthocyanidins are salt derivatives of the 2-phenylchromenylium cation, also known as flavylium cation. The counterion of the flavylium cation is mostly chloride.

With this positive charge, the anthocyanidins differ from other flavonoids. Anthocyanidins are stabilized with addition of glycose moiety, usually glucose moiety, at the 3-position of the anthocyanidin in a reaction catalyzed by flavonoid 3-glucosyltrasferase (GT). Anthocyanidins are grouped into 3-hydroxyanthocyanidins, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, and O-methylated anthocyanidins.

There are about 17 anthocyanidins found in nature, but only six (cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin, pelargonidin, and malvidin, with cyanidin being the most common) are ubiquitously spread and of great importance in human. Besides the use of anthocyanidins as natural dyes, these colored pigments are potential pharmaceutical ingredients that give various beneficial health effects.

Scientific studies, such as cell culture studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, show that anthocyanidins possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various non-communicable diseases.
Anthocyanidins

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